C++20 atomic_ref

C++11 provides the atomic operations library that features classes and functions that enable us to perform atomic operations using lock-free mechanisms. There are primarily two class templates in this library, std::atomic and std::atomic_flag. The latter, which defines an atomic boolean type, is guaranteed to always be lock-free and is implemented using the lock-free atomic CPU instructions. The former however, may actually be implemented using mutexes or other locking operations. In this article, we will look at a new class template, introduced in C++20, std::atomic_ref.